Trees play a vital role in shaping our planet as we know it and are responsible, in large part, for many ecosystems looking and successful. They are home to a large number of animals, functioning as a refuge and as protectors of the land against erosion caused by the elements, in addition to producing oxygen by carrying out the photosynthesis process. For all this and more, trees are vital and it is convenient to know them a little better.
If you want to learn more about what are the different types of trees, in addition to their main characteristics, join us in this article in which we will talk about the different types of trees and their names and characteristics .
Characteristics of trees and their parts
These are the main characteristics of trees :
- One of the main characteristics to take into account when distinguishing a tree from other types of plants is its lignified or woody trunk, much harder and thicker than the finer and more tender stems of green plants.
- Many shrubs also have a trunk of these characteristics and, in many cases, it can be difficult to distinguish a large bush from a small tree. On these occasions, it can help us a lot to look at the branches of the plant. If these arise from practically at ground level, we will probably be in front of a bush. If, on the other hand, the branches begin to emerge at a certain height from the ground, it is most likely a tree, because it will have a woody main stem.
- Trees are plants with a great variety of sizes, which can reach heights from a few meters, such as Rhus typhina , to true giants of more than 100 meters, such as Eucalyptus regnans , the largest that was measured was estimated to be about 143 meters high.
The rest of the characteristics of the trees can be seen in their different parts. The main parts of a tree are shared by all of them, including roots, crown, trunk, branches and leaves.
- The roots are responsible for the absorption of water and nutrients.
- The trunk and branches are responsible for giving structure and support to the rest of the aerial parts, as well as transporting the substances through them and the leaves do photosynthesis , thus making food from sunlight and air, as well as the elements that the roots absorb.
- The crown , on the other hand, is the entire upper part of the leaves and branches of the tree, its vegetal dome. Shades the rest of the tree and allows better breathability.
Learn more about the Parts of a tree and their functions with this other post.
Types of deciduous trees
Deciduous trees are those that, in the cold months, usually throughout the autumn season, lose their leaves . This is a mechanism to save nutrients by not maintaining leaves that due to the cold could be damaged and that, also, due to the less sunlight during the season, could not fulfill their function of carrying out photosynthesis with great success anyway.
They are typical of climates with cold and dry winters and tend to reach great heights and enjoy long longevity. Some examples of deciduous trees are:
- White poplar
- ash tree
Types of evergreens
Unlike deciduous trees, evergreens keep their leaves throughout the season , gradually renewing and changing them throughout the year. Conifers are the main group of evergreen trees, although not the only one, and are recognized as the tallest and longest-lived, such as the Bristlecone pine, which can live for more than 5,000 years, and the Coast Redwood, which exceeds 100 meters high. They are, in general, trees very resistant to colder or aggressive climates, such as high mountain ones, and in the case of conifers , their cone-shaped growth structure is very characteristic.
Some names for evergreens are:
- Pine tree
- Neem tree
Types of fruit trees
Many trees have flowers and produce fruits, but only those whose fruits are consumed by humans as fruit are what we call fruit trees . Since it is a very unscientific definition, we can find disagreements in some aspects, such as, for example, in the case of trees that produce so-called nuts: culinary they are considered fruit trees, while the fruit production industry separates them from it.
There are very different types, although, for obvious reasons, all fruit trees are trees with flowers and fruits. Some fruit trees are the following:
- Lemon Tree
- Apple tree
- Orange tree
Types of ornamental trees
Finally, those considered ornamental trees are those that have some characteristic that makes them aesthetically striking or pleasing to the eye. They are highly valued species for decorating gardens or green spaces and their variety is as great as the tastes of gardening enthusiasts. They are selected for their size and shape, their color or their ability to withstand different climates and environments. Obviously, whether a tree is considered ornamental or does not exclude it from the previous classifications.
Some examples of ornamental trees are:
- Korean maple
- Silver willow
- Tree of love
- Iron Tree