One of the most advanced cultivation techniques in the world of gardening in agriculture is grafting. It is an association between two different plants that are linked in such a way that they can continue to develop as a single plant. To do this, you must choose a bud or a shoot that comes from one plant and introduce it into another. This is intended to establish a permanent union. There are numerous types of grafts depending on the variety and the destination with which it is grown.
In this article, we are going to tell you about the types of uncertainty and their characteristics.
How a graft is done
It is we take a bud or a sprout that comes from a plant and we introduce it in the other. The plant into which the sprout is introduced is called the master plant. Once soldiers, each one retains its genetic characteristics . The graft will produce the aerial parts of the new plant, while the stock provides the root system.
The transplant is done through an incision that is made in the pattern to receive the graft so that it can combine with the cells in contact between the two to form a healing callus. To combine the two, certain conditions must be met, some internal, depending on the nature of the plants to which they are attached (the combination between close relatives is better), and the other is external, depending on the environment in which they grow .
For the two organs of the plant to be permanently integrated, there must be a harmony of form and function between the tissues in contact. If a conductive tissue is to be formed that allows the juice to circulate normally, the master and graft must have blood vessels of similar diameters and have a similar composition . This requires that the aggregated plants have a very close genetic relationship.
Grafting between plants of the same species is safe, in fact, it is also safe in plants of the same species. Grafting between plants of the same genus, but in some cases different species can be achieved, but not in other cases. For example, grafting between citrus species (oranges, lemons, etc.) is easy to achieve, but grafting between Prunus is more difficult (pears, apple trees).
Also, for bonding to occur, there must be close contact between living tissues and the change of both sides must overlap. Sometimes due to different conditions, incompatibility can occur after the graft is welded , so the requirements of the two should be similar.
The time of grafting outdoors is usually when the sap begins to move and rot. That is, March and September-October respectively . As for the types of grafts, they are diverse, for certain plants or the time of transplantation, some methods are preferable to others.
Types of grafts
They are made on plants, threatened bullfighter, nectarine, apple tree, pear tree and on ornamental plants. It has a great advantage since high performance percentages are obtained. They are made from the spring autumn time when the bark of the pattern can be expected more easily. In addition, it is important that the tree is actively growing and has the sap flowing well.
It is more difficult than the previous one, but it is used with success in species with a thick bark such as walnut. The best time to do it is in late summer or early fall. Although it can be done in spring, it is not the ideal time. The bark of the necessary pattern that can be peeled off easily and that the tree is in a state of vegetative growth with the sap flowing continuously. Thanks to this type of graft, it can be carried out successfully up to 10-centimeter-diameter patterns.
This is one of the types of uncertain that must be done in spring. Both the pattern, the graft are in continuous growth. It can also be done in summer, but the bud will not develop until the following spring. It is usually quite used in fig trees and other ficus. It is also used in any tree there was a shrub that has soft wood.
Types of grafts: barbs
In these cases, it is preferable that the pattern and the barb have the same diameter. If the pick is more delicate than the pattern, it should be placed offset to one side. It cannot be placed in the center . It is usually done in mid to late winter.
Stump in branches
It is a very useful method for grafting on branches that are too thick. For this type the best patterns are branches that are around 3-5 centimeters in diameter. The best time to perform them in late winter or early spring. The barb should only be sharpened on one side so that as much cambium as possible can be in contact.
Subcortical lateral graft
The time to do it is in late winter. At this time the bark of the pattern can be unfolded more easily. You just have to make a T-cut in the smoothest area of the pattern bark and peel off the bark. The pick is prepared by beveling it on one side only. The stake is then driven under the raised bark and gracefully tied. Finally, it is waxed with mastic to be able to graft.
Uncertain lateral wedge
It is used quite often on conifers. The most common time to do it is during winter. You have to wait until the patterns are at least 3 years old so that they are completely ready. The barb must be a shoot with a terminal bud and have at least 3 lateral buds .
It is one of the most recommended types of uncertainty when the pattern and the pick have the same diameter. The pattern is cut with pruning shears to the desired height and a cut is made along the center about 6 centimeters in length.