The hazel is a deciduous shrubby plant native to Europe and Asia that is cultivated for its delicious fruits, the hazelnuts, but also for its amazing ornamental value, since it can also be kept as an isolated specimen or in high hedges in a way that guarantees the security and privacy of those who want to enjoy the garden.
Its beautiful green leaves turn an intense yellow color that will undoubtedly attract the eyes of everyone who comes to see you. Do you want to know more about him? Then do not miss the hazel care guide that we have prepared for you, in which you will discover absolutely everything about this spectacular plant.
- 1 Hazelnut characteristics
- 2 How do you take care of yourself?
- 2.1 Location
- 2.2 Irrigation
- 2.3 Subscriber
- 2.4 Soil
- 2.5 Pruning
- 2.6 Plantation
- 2.7 Collection
- 3 How does it reproduce?
- 3.1 Seeds
- 3.2 Stems
- 4 How to graft hazelnuts?
- 5 Hazel pests and diseases
- 5.1 Pests
- 5.2 Diseases
- 6 Uses of hazelnut
The hazelnut, whose scientific name is Corylus avellana , is a shrub or small tree that grows up to 8 meters high. Its crown is very extended, branching already from the base. The leaves are rounded, about 12cm long, and are pubescent, that is, they have very short and soft “hairs”.
There are male flowers and female flowers. The first are the so-called catkins, which can measure up to 12cm long and are brownish-yellow in color; the latter, on the other hand, are hardly visible since they sprout from the buds and are very small. Both sprout in different specimens -it is a monoecious species- in spring, before the leaves appear.male flowersfemale flowers
In order for the fruit to form, it is necessary for the pollen from the male flowers to reach the female flowers, and for this, unlike other plants, they use the force of the wind . If you have been lucky, the hazelnuts will grow for 8 months, which will be when they are ready to go cold before germinating.
How is it taken care of?
If you would like to have a hazelnut tree in your garden, take note of our advice:
It is a plant that must be kept outdoors, in full sun, or in semi-shade if the weather is very hot. It supports frost down to -10ºC , but not high temperatures of more than 32ºC.
It likes cool and slightly humid soils, so watering has to be frequent . During the warmer months you have to water it 3 times a week, and the rest of the year every 4-5 days. We will use rainwater or acidified water (adding the liquid from half a lemon to 1l/water) to avoid chlorosis.
Being a plant whose fruits are for human consumption, it must be fertilized with organic fertilizers , such as manure , earthworm humus or compost once a month throughout the growing season (from spring to late summer).
It will grow without problems in soils whose pH is between 5.5 and 7 . It can be in those calcareous soils, but for it to develop correctly it will be necessary to add iron sulfate from time to time or fertilize it with fertilizers for acidophilic plants.
In autumn at the end of winter , the stems that come out from the base must be removed, and it has to be pruned following the nature of the bush.
Being monoecious, it is recommended to plant two or more specimens (male and female) in rows in spring, leaving a distance between specimens of at least 5 meters.
Another option is to buy a hazel that is grafted to save space in the garden.
Hazelnuts are harvested when the involucre has changed color (from green to brown) and is already beginning to dry out, which occurs around autumn.
How does it reproduce?
The hazel tree reproduces by seeds or stems. What to do in each case?
To have young hazelnuts, you have to buy the seeds in the fall -preferably from the bush itself, although they will also be useful if you buy them in bulk at the supermarket-, and follow these steps:
- The first thing to do is plant them in a tupperware with vermiculite moistened with water in the fridge at 6-7ºC.
- Once a week and for three months, the tupperware will be removed and the lid will be opened so that the air is renewed and, in this way, the proliferation of fungi is avoided.
- After that time, in spring they will be sown in pots with a universal culture substrate mixed with 30% perlite, and they will be placed in semi-shade.
The seeds will germinate in 2-3 months , keeping the soil moist.
The hazel is a plant that usually grows many stems, which can be removed with a hoe -and very carefully – in spring and then planted in pots or in other corners of the ground.
How to graft hazelnuts?
If you want to have a hazel that bears fruit, you can graft it when it has a trunk thickness of at least 2cm. To do this, you must wait until spring begins to cut a semi-woody branch and graft it on your plant, making a simple full cleft graft , which is done by making a vertical cut of a branch or trunk, and inserting the cutting. To finish, you just have to join it with raffia rope, and cover it with a transparent plastic bag.
After about 21 days, remove the bag, and just two months later you can remove the rope.
Hazel pests and diseases
There are several pests and diseases that can affect you. Let’s see what the main ones are and how to treat them:
- Aphids : appear on the flowers, preventing their development. You can treat them with Neem Oil , or with Insecticide Oil for sale in nurseries.
- Fruit bud moth : it is a lepidoptera ( Recurvaria manella ) whose caterpillars attack the flower buds and later the leaves. They are treated with insecticide oil in winter.
- Winter falena : the larvae of the butterfly Operapthera brumata affect the leaves, where they curl up. The plant must be treated before flowering with Carbaril.
- Bed bugs: they are insects barely 1cm long, with an oval and slightly elongated appearance. It feeds on the sap of the leaves, and can cause significant damage to hazelnut trees. They are treated with Neem Oil.
- Powdery mildew : it is a fungus that mainly affects the leaves, where white spots will appear. It is treated with systemic fungicide.
- Root rot : they are fungi that affect the roots when the environment is very humid and the soil does not have good drainage. It is treated with systemic fungicides.
- Mal del agarro : it is a fungus that, once it infects the plant, nothing can be done. The branches are totally torn after only 5 years. Fortunately, it can be prevented by avoiding excessive watering and fertilizing it in spring and summer.
- Hazel glosporiosis: it is a disease that prevents the flowers from developing. It attacks the yolks, turning them dark and drying up. It is treated with Manzodeb in midsummer (August in the Northern Hemisphere).
The hazel is used above all for its fruits, but also as an ornamental plant, either as an isolated specimen or forming hedges. But it must also be said that it has medicinal properties, in fact, it is antipyretic , astringent and antiedematous .
It can be taken by making an infusion with 25 grams of green leaves to disinfect wounds, of pollen by boiling 50 grams in water to produce a sudorific effect, or after cooking 35 grams of bark in 1l of water for 20 minutes as an astringent. .
Did you know all these facts about the hazelnut?