Who has never dreamed of being in a jungle tasting the best tropical fruits that nature gives them? Although it is true that it is becoming easier to find them in supermarkets around the world, it is no less true that it is interesting to know which plants produce them and what is their real hardiness to, you know, grow them in the garden 😉.
That will be precisely what I am going to tell you in this article; not in vain, it is a gardening blog and, as such, we want you to be well informed about everything related to plants.
Table of Contents
- 1 What is called a tropical fruit?
- 2 Types of tropical fruits
- 2.1 Avocado
- 2.2 Coco
- 2.3 Durian
- 2.4 Mango
- 2.5 Papaya
- 2.6 Pineapple
- 2.7 Rambutan
What is called a tropical fruit?
Tropical fruits, called exotic fruits in the countries where they are imported, are those that come from plants originating in areas with a tropical or subtropical climate. All of them have in common the null resistance to cold, so that they are easily damaged when the temperature falls below 4ºC.
The exporting countries are those that make up the Far East (East Asia), Latin America, the Caribbean, and to a lesser extent Africa and the subtropical coast of Granada (in Spain).
Types of tropical fruits
El avocado, known as avocado or avocado, is the fruit of the evergreen tree Persea americana, native to Latin America, especially Mexico, Argentina, Bolivia, Chile, Peru and Uruguay. It is a berry from 7 to 33cm long by up to 15cm wide, with greenish to dark purple skin and edible pulp. More than as fruit (for dessert) it is used in salads or rice.
The tree reaches a height of up to 20 meters, the most common being 8-12m, with a wide crown up to 6-7m in diameter. Due to its origin, anyone might think that it does not like the cold at all, but the truth is that it is one of the few tropical plants that can be grown in areas such as the warm Mediterranean climate, with mild and occasional frosts of up to -2ºC.
The coconut is the fruit of the coconut palm (Cocos nucifera), which is not well known from where it originates, but it is agreed that it could be from both the tropical beaches of Asia (India above all), and the Caribbean. It measures from 20 to 30cm and weighs 2,6kg, depending on the variety. It is harvested from February to July, and once at home it can be consumed fresh or made milk.
The plant that produces it reaches a height of more than 10 meters, with pinnate leaves with a length of 4-5 meters. It does not resist frost; in fact, the minimum temperature that it supports is 10ºC (and even so it should not drop below 18ºC), so that its cultivation is only allowed in warm areas; and indoors it is very difficult to keep it alive when autumn arrives.
El durian, or durion, is one of the most curious tropical fruits. They are produced by the tree Durio zibethinus, which is native to Southeast Asia. It can be round or square in shape, up to 40cm in diameter and weigh 2-3kg. The shell is armed with green or brown spines, and a pulp with a creamy texture and a very strong smell that not everyone likes.
The tree can reach a height of up to 50 meters, being the usual 25m. The leaves are evergreen, opposite, and 10-18cm long. Like the coconut tree, it is very, very sensitive to cold and only resists up to 16ºC.
El mango It is one of the tropical fruits that is most imported to countries where its cultivation is difficult or impossible. It is produced by the tree Mangifera indicates, which is native to India and Indochina. It is a drupe that may or may not be fibrous, orange, yellow or red-garnet in color when mature.
The tree is evergreen, being able to reach up to 45 meters in height and a crown diameter of up to 10 meters. It does not resist frost, but there is a variety, such as ‘Keitt’, which could be had in areas with very weak and occasional frosts of up to -1ºC; yes, it would behave as expired.
La papaya is the fruit of Carica papaya, a shrub native to Mesoamerica. It is also known as papayón, papaya, lechoza, papaya melon, tree melon, or bomb fruit. It is an ovoid-oblong berry, with orange pulp and weighing up to 9kg, although normally it does not usually exceed 600 grams. Inside are black and rounded seeds.
The shrub that produces it reaches a maximum height of 2,5 meters, with a thin trunk about 35cm thick. In cultivation it is not demanding, as long as the temperature does not drop below 0ºC and there is always water within reach.
Pineapple is produced by a bromeliad whose scientific name is Pineapple comosus, which is originally from South America (it is not known exactly where). It is known as pineapple, pineapple or matzatli, apart from as clear pineapple 🙂, and It is a berry with yellow pulp that reaches about 30cm high (including the bracts -modified leaves-) by 15cm in diameter, and weighing up to two kilos, except the baby pineapple that weighs between 300 and 700 grams.
The plant that produces it is lively and terrestrial, apparently without stem / trunk. Its leaves form a rigid rosette 30 to 100cm long. Its cultivation outside its origin is simple, since the cold does not harm it too much, being able to withstand occasional frosts of up to -2ºC (losing the aerial part, that is, the leaves, and sprouting in spring). It can also be kept in a bright room until spring returns.
El rambutan is the fruit of Nephelium, a tree native to Southeast Asia, probably Malaysia. It is known as Chinese mamón, lichas, achotillo or, of course, rambutan. It is an oval drupe about 3 to 6cm long by 3-4cm wide., with reddish or yellow skin and covered by soft spines (could be mistaken for a sea urchin 😉).
The plant that produces it is evergreen, and reaches a height of 3 to 7 meters. Its leaves are alternate and pinnate, 10 to 30 cm long. It does not withstand frost and does not like cold either, so its cultivation outdoors is only recommended in hot tropical climates.