Reproduction of plants | Gardening On

Capsicum seeds

Taking care of plants is a wonderful experience, but it is even more so to obtain new specimens of them. In gardening, several techniques are used for this purpose, some more complicated than others, but all just as interesting.

On this occasion, we are going to see what the plant multiplicationand what each technique consists of.


Dill seedsdill seeds

Anethum graveolens seeds

It is the least used technique among professionals, but the most used among amateurs. Depending on the species of plant it is, it may take more or less time to obtain a specimen large enough to plant in the garden, in the vegetable garden or in a pot to decorate, but it is very nice to see how the seedling grows and develops .

Also depending on what type of species it is, it can be sown directly in the nursery or it will have to undergo a pregerminative treatment.

Direct sowing

Sowing in potplanting in a pot

Sowing in a pot.

Herbaceous plants, including horticultural plants, as well as indigenous ones, can be sown directly in a seedbed. To do this, you have to do the following:

  1. First, you have to prepare the seedbed. This can be a plastic tray with holes, a flowerpot, peat tablets, milk or yogurt containers, … in short, what we prefer as long as it has holes for drainage.
  2. Then, if necessary, it will be filled with a substrate composed of black peat mixed with 30% perlite or some similar material.
  3. Next, a maximum of 2 seeds are placed on the surface of the substrate, slightly separated from each other, and they are buried to a depth of 0,5 to 1 cm. The bigger the seed, the deeper it must be.
  4. Finally, we water and place the seedbed in an area where it can get sunlight.

Pregerminative treatments


Vermiculite, the ideal substrate for stratifying seeds.

Pregerminative treatments are those that are carried out before sowing the seeds in order to ensure that they will germinate in the expected time. It is carried out in species that have very hard seeds, or in those that come from colder climates. There are different methods:


  • Thermal shock: consists of introducing the seeds 1 second in boiling water and 24 hours in water at room temperature. It is the ideal method for hard seeds, such as those of trees that belong to the legume family, such as Albizia, Sophora or Robinia.
  • Sanding the seeds: consists of passing the sandpaper several times until they change color. Afterwards, they are placed in a glass of water for 24 hours to hydrate. It can be used on trees such as Acacia, Ailanthus, or Delonix (especially recommended).


There are many seeds that have to go through a very cold or very warm period before germinating. But of course, it often happens that we have some in areas where the climate is, in this sense, very different from what they have in their natural habitat. With stratification, the aim is to try to imitate the temperatures that they would have in their natural environment for them to germinate. There are different types:

  • Cold stratification: It is one that is carried out so that the seeds that come from areas where winter is cold can germinate in spring.
  • Warm stratification: is one that is made so that the seeds come from areas where the climate is mild and warm.
  • Double layering: It is the one that is carried out when the seeds have to be subjected first to warm temperatures and then to cold temperatures.
How it is performed?

To stratify the seeds, proceed as follows:

  1. First, you have to prepare a transparent plastic tupperware with a lid.
  2. Afterwards, it is filled with vermiculite.
  3. Next, it is moistened with a little water, being careful not to puddle.
  4. The seeds are then spread over the surface and covered with more vermiculite.
  5. Finally, a little copper or sulfur is added to prevent fungi from affecting them and the tupperware is placed in the refrigerator at 7ºC if it is a cold stratification, or it is placed in an area where the temperature is between 20 and 30 XNUMXºC if it is a warm stratification.


Gypsy cuttingsCuttings of gypsies

Gypsy cuttings.

It is one of the most efficient and fastest methods for multiplying plants. With the exception of the herbaceous ones, all the others can be multiplied by cuttings. But, not all of them can be cut at the same times:

  • Evergreen woody plants: the ideal time is at the end of winter.
  • Deciduous woody plants: it can be done in autumn if the weather is mild, or in late winter.
  • Succulent or succulent plants not cacti: spring Summer.
  • Inside plants: spring.

There are different types of cuttings, which are:

  • Stem or branch cuttings: they are obtained in spring by cutting a stem or branch about 10 to 40cm long, without leaves or with very few leaves and containing at least two nodes or buds. In order for them to take root in, it is highly advisable to moisten the base with powdered rooting hormones and plant them in pots with sandy substrates.
  • Leaf cuttings: they are obtained in spring or summer by cutting a healthy leaf from some plants, such as Echeveria, Haworthia or Begonia. Afterwards, they are planted in pots with sandy substrates. In the case of succulents, the leaves have to be laid down a little, and they have to be covered with a little substrate.
  • Root cuttings: root cuttings, whether tubers, bulbs or rhizomes, are obtained in late spring with a sharp knife and previously disinfected with pharmacy alcohol. In each piece there must be at least one yolk. Once obtained, they are planted in pots or in the garden without completely burying them.


Aerial layeringair accommodation

Aerial layering

Layering is a very simple technique for multiplying woody plants, such as trees. It is done in spring or autumn, choosing a young branch, which is no more than two years old and with at least one bud.

In gardening, three types are used above all, which are:

  • Simple layer: It is carried out in spring, on plants with flexible stems or branches. A branch is taken, a not deep cut is made in the area to be curved so that roots sprout from that area, and it is held with a fork.
  • Aerial layering: it takes place in spring, also in autumn if the weather is mild. Two cuts are made 1 centimeter apart, and the bark is carefully removed from between the cuts to later apply rooting hormones. Finally, the area is wrapped with transparent plastic, tying one end, filling with peat moss and tying the other end. It is watered by water injections.
  • Multiple or serpentine bend: Used like simple layering, but the branch is buried at several points instead of one.


Yolk graftbud graft

Yolk graft

Grafting is the technique used to obtain more resistant varieties or with a better quality fruit. They consist of grafting a part of one plant onto another, joining them with grafting tape.

There are different types:

  • Spike graft: in spring a piece of stem bearing several buds is grafted into a lateral slit that will have been made in the rootstock.
  • Yolk graft: in spring a bud is cut and inserted on the rootstock to which a T-cut will have been made, tying them well with a rope or with grafting tape.
  • English graft: in autumn a bevel cut is made in the rootstock, and the stem of the plant that we want to multiply is cut and then inserted into the cut. It is highly recommended to join both legs with special grafting wax.
  • Crown graft: in spring, a horizontal cut is made on the rootstock, and then a deep cross-sectional cut on the surface, which is where we will have to introduce the cutting that has at least 2 buds.
  • Approximation graft: in autumn, the bark is removed from a branch of two plants, and they are joined.

Mat division

Head Divisionkill division

Image – Bonsai Codelia

The division of clumps is a technique widely used in plants that grow as clumps. And very simple. You just have to extract them from the pot, and with a knife or scissors, have fun. The ideal time for this is in spring.

In the event that they are planted on the ground, we must make ditches around the portion that we want to extract, and cut the roots with a small saw. Some parts will probably not succeed, but most will have no problem rooting once placed in another area of ​​the garden or in pots .

Separation of suckers


The date palm (Phoenix dactylifera) is a plant that can reproduce by separating suckers.

There are some plant species that tend to take out suckers, such as the Cycas or the Phoenix dactylifera. These can be separated when they have reached an easily manipulated size, in spring or summer, using a knife for the little ones or making small trenches around 30cm to make it easier to extract them with the root.

For them to root, it is convenient to moisten the base with rooting hormones and plant them in pots with sandy substrates in order to make it easier for them to sprout and grow.

And with this we are done. We hope it has been useful to you.

Reproduction of plants | Gardening On

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