Looking for a fast-growing fruit tree with delicious fruits that is also not picky about the soil? There are many that meet what you are looking for, but I am going to suggest the Jujube or Jinjolero. Why? Well, I can tell you in good hand that it is one of the fruit trees that grows best in limestone soils, with very poor drainage. Withstands drought, high summer temperatures, cold, pruning … In short, it is a tree without complications.
But since I imagine you want to know more about it, here is a guide to this plant that, for sure, Will not leave you indifferent.
Characteristics of the Jujube or Jinjolero
The first thing to say about our protagonist is, how could it be otherwise, his scientific name, which is the same in all parts of the world. The jujube or jinjolero is Ziziphus jujuba. This deciduous tree is native to Asia, specifically in the south and east of the country, and has a generally fast growth rate, but it can be slower if you do not have water regularly. The height will also vary depending on the water available: if it has enough, it can grow up to 10m, even more, but if it does not stay within 2-4m. For example, those that grow in the Mediterranean, as rainfall is a very rare phenomenon (it rains little in just a few months), do not exceed 2m or 2m.
But still and with those conditions they bear fruit. When? So so, towards the summer. The fruit is a fleshy edible drupe, like those found in plums or cherry trees. The skin is green at first, but when it matures, towards the beginning of autumn, it turns red and finally reddish brown. It must be said that they have a significant amount of vitamin C (69mg per 100 grams, which is 115% recommended), so it should not be abused.
The trunk gives the tree a very beautiful old-fashioned appearance, since the bark is wrinkled, dark brown in color. The branching is very dense, and presents thorns with which you have to be careful as they could harm us.
Jujube or Jinjolero care
Now that we know what it is like, let’s know how to take care of it so that we can savor its delicious fruits year after year.
This is a tree that will grow wonderfully if placed in sunny areaswhere it receives the light of the star king during, if possible, all day. It could be adapted in semi-shade (having more light than shade), but it probably did not produce much fruit.
Although it resists drought, if we want to fill the basket it is highly recommended to water it regularly, especially during the summer months or, if you are in a tropical climate, in the dry season. The frequency of irrigation to follow will be the following: 2-3 times a week in summer, and 1-2 a week the rest of the year.
Being a tree whose fruits are for human consumption, it must be paid during the growing season (from spring to late summer) with an organic fertilizer. You can use the liquids like guano, or powdered fertilizerssuch as worm castings or horse manure.
In the case of the former, it is advisable to follow the indications specified on the packaging; on the other hand, to fertilize with powdered fertilizers, you can add the necessary amount to form a thin layerno more than 2cm thick, around the tree and then mix it with the earth with a trowel, a wooden stick or similar.
The Jujube or Jinjoleros are not usually pruned, but if they grow a lot to the top, they are can be done in late winter to lower their heightand trim the branches, leaving a rounded crown.
The time to move the tree to the ground or to a larger pot will be in spring. For it the plant is removed from the pot taking care not to break the roots -although if some fine were broken, nothing would happen-, and it goes to its new location. Let’s see it in more detail:
Go to ground
If you want to land it, follow these steps:
- Make a planting hole of at least 50 x 50cm.
- Mix the soil with universal plant substrate in equal parts.
- Take your tree out of the pot, and put it in the hole. If you see that it is too low, take it out and add the soil that is necessary. It should not be too high, not too low. Ideally, it should be 2-3cm below.
- Then fill the hole with the earth.
- Now play make a tree gratewhich is nothing more than a “barrier” around the tree that will serve to keep the water only for the plant. It should be 5-10cm tall.
- Finally, give it a good irrigation.
Go to pot
If you want to have it in a new pot, it will have to be at least 4cm wider than the previous one. To transplant it, you must follow these steps:
- Fill the pot with a little universal plant substrate mixed with 20% perlite.
- Insert the tree into it, placing it in the center, and see if the surface of the root ball is more or less aligned with the edge of the pot.
- If so, you will only have to finish filling the pot with more substrate; if not, take it out and add more soil.
- Finally, give it a generous watering.
How to reproduce the jujube or Jinjolero
This tree reproduces basically by seeds, stump shoots or by grafting.
The seeds are acquired in autumn, when the fruits ripen. To get your own jujubes, you have to:
- Remove the drupe and remove the pulp adhered.
- Put them in a glass with water that has a 18% salt for a couple of hours.
- Put them in another glass with water with a small spoonful of sulfur during 4h.
- Finally, transfer them to a pot with a substrate composed of equal parts black peat and perlite, and to water.
They may take from 2 up to 6 months germinate, so to accelerate germination, it is advisable to place them near a heat source.
By strain buds
It has a great tendency to take off shoots, which are sometimes called suckers. These can be removed towards the end of winter by making four 50cm deep trenches around the mother tree, and With the help of a laya (which is a kind of straight shovel), lever them and thus be able to extract them with roots.
Once they are outside, they are planted in a corner of the garden or in a pot.
The fruit varieties of the Jujube or Jinjolero reproduce very effectively by grafting in spring. The most recommended type of graft is the one with T shapewhich is done as follows:
- Cut a branch of another specimen of at least 20cm in length.
- Make a shallow T-shaped cut on a branch of the jujube, and remove the bark on both sides of the longitudinal cut.
- Insert the cut branch into the cut that you have made (on the big stick of the T).
- Tie it with raffia rope or tape it down for grafts.
The graft will start to grow soon, over the course of 1 to 2 months.
Jujube or Jinjolero problems
We are lucky that this tree is not affected by pests or diseases, but it does can have fungal problems if overwatered. For this reason, it is very important to control watering and, in case of doubt, it is better not to water.
Anyway, To check the humidity of the substrate or soil, it will be enough to insert a thin wooden stick, extract it and see how it comes out. If it came out clean, we could proceed to water it as it would indicate the earth is dry, or if it came out with substrate or adhered earth we would wait a few more days to proceed to give it water.
Jujube Bonsai or Jinjolero
Although it is not a very used plant to work as bonsai, sometimes you can find it in nurseries. Being a very resistant species, it is ideal for both beginners and experts. If you would like to know how to maintain it, here is a care guide:
- Location: full sun.
- Substratum: you can use akadama alone, or if you prefer, mix it with 10 or 20% black peat.
- Transplant: every 2 years, in spring.
- Pruning: at the end of winter the formation prunings will be done, that is to say, those that serve to give a style to the tree; During the rest of the season, the leaves will be clipped, allowing 4 shoots to grow and removing 2.
- Wiring: very necessary to be able to shape it. It is also done in spring, trying to leave the same distance between turns. Check it from time to time so that the wire does not penetrate the branch. After 3-4 months it should be removed.
- Irrigation: in summer it is advisable to water once every 2-3 days; the rest of the year 2 times a week will suffice.
- Subscriber: use a mineral fertilizer for bonsai from spring to autumn.
Uses of Jujube or Jinjolero
The leaves and fruits are used from this plant. The former are used to feed livestock animals, while the latter can be used to make jams, consume as table fruit or as dried fruit. But in addition, it also has medicinal properties. In fact, it is astringent, they will soften y vitamin. Likewise, the leaves and bark can be used to relieve the symptoms of pharyngitis, or the fruits as a laxative.
In order to take advantage of its benefits, you can eat the fruits directly, or prepare a decoction as follows:
- First, he gets to boil water.
- It takes a small tablespoon of leaves and bark.
- And later boil for 5 minutes.
So far our special on the Jujube or Jinjolero. What do you think?