Gardening basics | Gardening On

It is necessary to have some notions of gardening to take care of plants

Humans have a very close relationship with nature; not in vain, our existence depends to a great extent on it. Fortunately, although we do not all live in the country, we can all have one or more plants. Some of them can be for example for consumption, such as lettuce or tomato plants, and others to beautify the place.

However, it is necessary to have some basic notions of gardening in order, first, to know what care to give to the crops at each moment of the year, and second to enjoy performing these tasks and the results that we are obtaining. But what are they?

Irrigation

Potted plants are best watered with a watering can

Potted plants are best watered with a watering can.

All plants need water. But It is important to always keep in mind that it is better to fall short than to go too far.since it is easier to recover a dry plant than another that has suffered damage as a result of overwatering. This is so because when overwatered, the roots run out of oxygen, weaken, and consequently become vulnerable to infections caused by parasitic fungi. And it is very difficult to eliminate them.

The best time to water is late in the afternoonespecially during the summer or if you live in an arid or semi-arid region. Now, there is an exception: if you have plants in shade, which never get the sun, and precisely on the day it is time to water them you have to go out, there is no problem in doing this task in the morning for example.

On the other hand, when you water, water well. I mean, you don’t have to take a little bit each time, no. A good watering is one that leaves the soil moistsince that is the only way to ensure that the roots are properly hydrated. So, pour water until it runs out of the holes in the pot, or until you see that the soil is soaked if it is on the ground.

Planting plants in the garden

In a garden, it is important for plants to have a certain space to grow. It is a very common mistake to plant them very close together, and that over the years they die as a result of the competition that has been created between them to get water and nutrients. To avoid this, our advice is as follows: find out how big the plants you want are going to be once they are adultsboth its height and its width.

As well it is highly recommended to know how are your rootssince if for example ficus or poplars are planted next to the wall

of a house, it is most likely that they will cause problems. Thus, if its roots are invasive, at least a distance of ten meters must be left between the plant and what is to be kept protected (pipes, paved floors, other large plants, etc.).

When making the hole, you must first remove all the herbs and stones that are there, both in the same place where you do it, and around it. Said hole is preferable to be at least twice the size of the pot, as this will allow them to take root better when they find ‘loose’ soil. Before introducing it, it is advisable to mix the soil with some organic compost, such as mulch or compost.

Potted plant transplantation

Potted plants eventually run out of room to continue growing, and unless action is taken they eventually weaken. Although there are species that can be grown in the same container throughout their life (from a certain age, when they have reached their adult size), such as the haworthias, gas shops, lithops, and many other succulents for example, the rest do not. Therefore, if you grow shrubs, palms or even trees, you will have to change them from pots every so often (normal is usually every 2-3 years, but this will depend on the growth speed of each plant).

And in any case, be it small or large plants, it is important that the pot you choose has holes in the base, except if they are aquatic. But if you plant a rose bush or a cactus (say some plants) in a glass jar or in a ceramic pot, the water that remains stagnant will rot the roots and therefore also the rest of the plants.

When to know when it is time for transplantation? Sometimes it’s easy to find out, since if roots grow out of the drainage holes, it is because they need more space. But sometimes this does not happen, so you have to be guided a little by the time it has been in that container. In this sense, it will be useful to know that the plants that are sold are almost always correctly rooted, ready for transplantation. In case of doubt, take the plant by the trunk, or under the last leaves, and pull upwards a little: if you see that the root ball (earth bread) comes out without falling apart, it is because it has taken root.

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There are many types of organic fertilizersThere are many types of organic fertilizers

Image – Flickr / SuSanA Secretariat

You have to fertilize the plants regularly (With the exception of carnivores, which should never be fertilized, since they would die when they are not prepared to absorb the nutrients through their roots). Today there are fertilizers (chemical or mineral fertilizers) for palm trees, rose bushes, green plants (for sale here!), flower plants, etc .; and also organic, such as compost, manure, peat, mulch (for sale here!), Etc.

The former are interesting when you need to be effective quickly, or when you want to correct a problem (for example, if we have a chlorotic plant, we can help it with a green plant fertilizer rich in iron). But the instructions must be followed to the letter; if not, the remedy will be worse than the disease.

As for the latter, they are especially interesting when you want to fertilize the garden plants, since fertilizing the crops also fertilizes the land, making it more fertile. These are applied by applying a layer of about 2-3 centimeters, and then mixing them a bit. NEVER combine different Fertilizers, or fertilizers with fertilizers, as we could cause damage by overdose.

Control of pests and diseases

Where there are plants, there are insects, and also opportunistic microorganisms. So one of the main tasks of everyone who grows is to inspect their plants frequently in search of pests, fungi or any other enemy they have. A) Yes, It is important that you observe the leaves above all, as this is where the first symptoms and / or damage usually appear.

Of all the pests that exist, the most common are aphids, spider mites, mealybugs, and white mocha. These are well treated with ecological insecticides, such as potassium soap (for sale here!), diatomaceous earth or neem oil. Even if you have ladybugs, mantises or other beneficial insects around the garden, will control pests.

And as for diseases, powdery mildew, mildew, bold and rust are the ones that affect plants the most. The best way to avoid them is by controlling the risks, but when whitish, gray, black or orange spots begin to appear, it is necessary to treat with fungicides, such as copper.

Pruning

Sometimes you have to prune the plants

Sometimes you have to prune the plants

At the end of winter you have to take out some pruning tools (scissors, small hand saw), to remove certain elements from plants that are undesirablesuch as suckers, branches that have grown too long, withered flowers, … It will also be a good time to shape shrubs, especially those that are kept as hedges.

In summer and autumn you can do small pruning, called pinching, mostly to control the growth of your plants and keep them with the desired size. But be careful, cut only green stems, otherwise they could lose much more sap than necessary.

Always use clean and sanitized tools. Fungi, viruses and bacteria are not visible to the naked eye, but that is precisely why extreme precautions must be taken. Thus, do not hesitate to wash them with soap and water before and after use.

What did you think of this topic? We hope you can enjoy your plants more from now on.

Gardening basics | Gardening On

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