Growing vines is not as far-fetched as it may sound. It is a crop that works very well in Spain but, in order to make it last for a long time and not to have any problems, you should know what the vine diseases.
Many of them can be stopped when the first symptoms appear but, to achieve this, it is necessary that you know how to identify them and put them in treatment. Therefore, this time we are going to help you with this practical guide to learn about vine diseases, their symptoms and common treatments.
Have you seen some small spots on the leaves that are pale green? They appear mainly on the upper part of the leaves while, on the underside, you can notice that there is a pubescent mold. If so, then you are facing one of the most common vine diseases.
The problem is that this can cause the leaves to fall, and cause the entire plant to be compromised by this fungus.
What treatment does it have? If you find that you vid has this problem, you will have to cut all the leaves and branches so that, in winter, there is no presence of it. You should also sprinkle the vine with a mixture of liquid copper, zineb, or Bordeaux mixture. Of course, as long as it is not in flower because, if you do, it can affect the fruit and lose the harvest.
This pest is caused by a mite, the Eriophyes vinewhich usually affects the plant in winter, where it takes refuge from the cold in the buds and under the bark. Thus, in spring, with good temperatures, it appears and does its own thing.
You will notice on the leaves because bulging will occurwhile on the underside they will have white and brown hairs.
What to do about this problem? If your vineyards suffer from it, the best is chemical treatment (sulfur), but you can also use biological ones or prune the affected parts and burn them.
Powdery mildew, one of the most common vine diseases
Powdery mildew is one of the great problems of those who have vineyards, especially if they are in the Mediterranean area. It appears when the temperature is between 25 and 28 degrees and also the humidity is quite high.
What symptoms does it cause? Contrary to the previous ones, in this case the problem does not remain only in the leaves, but affects more parts of the plant:
- Stems: You will see spots darker than normal, especially in the part of the new shoots.
- Sheets: You will notice that the leaves have a white powder or ash on them (it can be only from the front, or from the back).
- Bunches: They will also be affected by that white powder or ash and it can also crack the grapes.
What to do to end the problem? Depending on where the vine is, you can apply one treatment or another. And it is that, if you already have the first bunches, sulfur or systemic treatments; if it is blooming, only powdered sulfur; and if the grapes are growing and changing color, only systemic treatments.
Botrytis or gray rot
This is one of the vine diseases that affects them the most. One of the main symptoms of this fungus you will have in the grapes. These, suddenly, are going to be covered by a gray-brown mass, like a hair. In addition, it will not only affect the grapes, but they can also go to the flowers in such a way that the fruits already appear with this problem.
If it is not caught in time, the fungus is very fast to spread, because it does so through spores in the air, so an entire crop could be lost. However, we are not going to fool you; It is one of the most difficult to control, and you often only notice it when it is too late.
However, you should know that it has a solution. It is about using fungicides, such as methylthiophanate or benomyl that serve to fight against this fungus, but they have the problem that, over time, they become resistant, so you have to alternate them with others specific to the problem.
Rust is another of the most problematic vine diseases, because it is caused by a fungus. You will notice it because red spots begin to appear on the leaves on the upper side, especially in the oldest ones. And if it is not treated in time, you will begin to lose them irretrievably.
The good news is that in direct sun it can be beaten, so a good pruning to help keep the vine healthy can help. Combined with some fungicide it can be saved.
Among the most dangerous vine diseases, and today that have little solution, tinder is one of them. It is caused by fungi that they attack the wood of the vine, causing it to start to yellow, although a greener area (dark or black) will appear around these spots. If that happens, the wood is rotting, becoming soft, white and spongy.
The leaves are also affected, losing their color and dying. And as for the grapes, they will appear the same color as the problem fungus.
The problem is that this fungus can be inside the plant for years, damaging it, and it is not until it is too late that it makes an appearance. If to that we add that there are no phytosanitary products capable of fighting against this, if you have a vine like this, the only thing you can do is try to prune and, if it is already very affected, then remove it completely.
Characterized by the appearance on the leaves of some round spots between brown and blackthese change as the fungus progresses, to a gray hue. The leaves themselves will dry out and only that hole will remain in them without drying.
Sometimes it can also affect the bunches.
How is it treated? Use phenological products that are the most effective to control the problem.
There are many more diseases of the vine, but these that we have mentioned are the most frequent in these crops. Do you know any more?