Plants need numerous nutrients to grow and be healthy, to photosynthesize, etc. However, it does not require all the nutrients in the same amount or concentration.
Thanks to various plant processes such as the aforementioned photosynthesis, plants assimilate the nutrients available in the air, water and soil. Depending on the time of life the plant is in, they may have different nutrient needs. What are the most necessary nutrients for plants?
If our plants are in a part where they require more of some nutrients than others, we can add organic fertilizers that are rich in certain nutrients. It is also important to know some characteristics of the soil where we have planted like its pH, texture, composition, drainage, etc. Since these characteristics may be hindering the absorption of nutrients or on the contrary, they may be absorbing excessive amounts of a trace element (these elements are required in very low amounts).
For example, if we grow acidophilic plants (which need a soil with a very acidic pH) in a soil with an alkaline pH, the plants will not be able to absorb magnesium and iron, producing a yellowing of their leaves. The solution will not be to fertilize more, but to change the substrate or grow plants from alkaline soil.
Once the characteristics of our soil are well known, the nutrients that plants require the most in order of importance are:
Oxygen (O), Carbon (C) and Hydrogen (H)
These elements are necessary for the plant to live and to produce photosynthesis. They are normally obtained by the plant through air and water. They incorporate oxygen and carbon from air and hydrogen from water.
Nitrogen is a nutrient necessary for plant growth and leaf formation. The floors have to be well aerated so that they can incorporate the nitrogen that will be absorbed by the plant through its roots.
Phosphorus is a nutrient that favors flowering in many plants and the formation of fruits. A soil with good amounts of phosphorus is more suitable for plants to produce higher quality fruits.
Potassium is essential for plant roots to grow longer and can reach greater territory. This way you will have more space to be able to acquire more nutrients from the soil and absorb more water. It is essential when the plant is growing and young.
Plants require some secondary elements in smaller amounts such as Calcium (Ca), Sulfur (S) and Magnesium (Mg).
Mentioned above, these soil elements are essential for plants in very small amounts. Are the Iron (Fe), Manganese (Mn), Copper (Cu), Zinc (Zn), Boron (B), Molybdenum (Mo), Cobalt (Co) and Chlorine (Cl).
With this information you can know which are the nutrients that plants need the most to grow and be strong.