We want to see our plants always healthy, lush and blooming.
But there are many pests that threaten their well-being and appearance. These include about fifty species of arthropods – aphids, Spanish and grape slugs, apple scoops, bears, Colorado and lily beetles, weevils, onion and narcissus flies, beetles, thrips, spider mites, and many others.
Also, plants are threatened by pathogenic fungi and bacteria, viruses.
In this article we will talk about the main pests and the main means of dealing with them.
Major plant pests
The insect aphid is of different types. Allocate green, brown and black aphids.
This insect appears in whole colonies.
Aphid colonies densely cover young stems and leaves, and break through their epidermis. After penetration, she drinks the juices of the plant. This leads to weakening and deformation of the shoots.
In addition, viscous aphid secretions fall on parts of the plant, in place of which mold may appear.
In flowerbeds and gardens, certain types of plants are more frequently attacked by aphids. These include legumes, lentils, plums, roses, lentils. Check them 2-3 times a week.
Plants covered with aphids are first watered abundantly, and then they are treated with an insecticide, for example, Engio. Spraying should be repeated after 2 weeks.
You can also do without chemically aggressive agents. For example, use herbal infusions.
Often used infusion of yarrow. For 1 kg of grass take up to 2 liters of hot water and keep for an hour. Then add up to 8 liters of water and the mixture is ready.
Horse sorrel infusion is also popular. Up to 300 g of finely chopped horse sorrel rhizomes, pour 10 liters of boiling water and keep for 3 hours. After that, you can treat the plant with this infusion.
This type of mites lives on the underside of leaves. The main symptom of the appearance of a spider mite is a thin white cobweb on the plant.
This pest multiplies rapidly and is able to damage all the leaves on one adult rose in a day.
To eliminate the spider mite, we suggest using strong chemicals, for example, Decis.
Caterpillars of certain species of butterflies infect many plants. The first symptom of the appearance of caterpillars are holes of various shapes in the leaf blade.
Roses most often take damage from caterpillars. Juicy dark green glossy leaves attract them.
If there are few caterpillars, then collect them manually and kill them. If there are many caterpillars, use insecticides, such as aktara.
You can also use herbal infusion of burdock.
To prepare it, pour half a bucket of finely chopped leaves with boiling water and leave for a day. Then you can spray the plants.
The pennit family includes 900 species of insects. One of the stages of development of this insect is a pink larva, up to 5 mm in length.
The larvae of pennits suck out the juice of plants, and also provoke the deformation of young shoots.
These pests most often infect campanulas, tall chrysanthemums, panicled phloxes, geleniums, loosestrife.
Pennit larvae are removed either with a stream of water, or the stems are treated with a contact insecticide.
Slugs are a common and dangerous enemy of plants. They leave huge holes on the leaf blades and are noticeable due to sticky traces. If there are a lot of slugs, then the young plant may die.
They love dark and damp areas of the garden. In the evening, the slugs become active and begin to feed plants with large and powerful leaves.
Most often, special chemicals are used to combat these pests, for example, Slimaks.
Also effective is the treatment of plants in the evening with slaked lime or sprinkle mustard powder near the plants.
In areas where humus was applied in autumn, the bear often breeds. Brown insect with massive mandibles. It feeds on the roots of plants, so the plant often dies. Mostly bears live underground, it is almost invisible on the surface.
To combat Medvedka, an insecticide is most often used – Antimedvedka granules.
Also use a solution of ammonia. To 10 liters of water add 10 mg of ammonia. After settling, water the places where the bear appears, for 1 place – half a liter of solution.
A variety of remedies for pests and plant diseases
To cure your plants as quickly as possible, there are many means. Among them are insecticides, fungicides and universal substances for plant protection.
Insecticides are industrially synthesized chemical substances aimed at the destruction, as well as delaying the development and reproduction of insect pests.
Depending on the principle of action, the following groups are distinguished among insecticides:
- Respiratory (fumigants);
Intestinal insecticides enter the body of the insect along with food.
Usually these are arsenic preparations, as well as metal fluorides.
Respiratory insecticides enter insects through the tracheal system as a gas or vapour.
Representatives of the group of contact insecticides enter the plant through chitinous covers. These are compounds of nitrogen, chlorine or phosphorus with organic substances.
Systemic insecticides penetrate the plant and make its tissues poisonous, which leads to instant death of insects when feeding.
Most representatives of this group are organophosphorus compounds.
Also among insecticides, larvocides are distinguished – substances that kill exclusively larvae.
The most popular insecticides:
- Decis Profi;
- Confidor Maxi;
Chemicals that are used to control fungal diseases of adult plants and dressing seeds from spores of pathogenic fungi are called fungicides.
Fungicides are used both for the treatment of vegetative parts of the plant – leaves, stems, and bulbs, tubers before planting.
This group of substances affects the synthesis of enzymes and elements of cell membranes, which leads to the death or stop the reproduction of fungi.
The most popular fungicide preparations:
- Previkur Energy;
- Ridomil Gold;
- Revus Top;
We remind you that you can find a wide range of fungicides and insecticides at an affordable price in the plant protection products section of the Florium online store.
Universal substances for plant protection
In addition to highly specific substances, there are universal means for plant protection.
- rock salt;
- Potassium permanganate;
- Boric acid;
- Laundry soap;
- Baking soda and many more.
Potassium permangant is a versatile and affordable disinfectant for seeds and bulbs. It will be useful when processing tools.
A solution of brilliant green or brilliant green is used to process tool blades and cuts.
Boric acid is used to treat stems and leaves, promotes development, good flowering.
Laundry soap is used for disinfecting tools and for spraying plants from fungal diseases.
A solution of rock salt helps to fight onion fly on garlic, cabbage and some other plants.
See also Storing houseplants in winter.