Plants are very special living beings: unlike animals, they cannot move, and that leaves them exposed, whether they want to or not, to the environmental changes that take place throughout the year. As a result, they only have two options: adapt… or die. It’s that hard, but in nature only those who manage to adapt survive.
So that you can see how dramatic the situation they are in can be, we are going to talk to you about what are the effects of the seasons of the year on plants.
How are the seasons produced?
The planet is round. In addition, it rotates on itself, and … to complicate things a little more, its axis is tilting. But no, that’s not all: as it rotates in its orbit, sometimes it is closer to the Sun, and sometimes further away. All this I want you to know from what I will tell you next: the rays of the star king do not reach all parts of our beloved Earth in the same way. That is why in Ecuador the degree of insolation is much stronger than, for example, in Germany.
Consequently, plants have adapted, and have done so depending on the environmental conditions of the area in which they live. Thus, for example, in areas where the climate is always mild and it rains very frequently, humid tropical forests grow; but if we go much further north, where the regions are temperate and, although it can rain a lot, it does not do so much less as often as in the tropics, we will find the forests.
And it is precisely there, in temperate regions, where the seasons of the year are noticeable much more than in any other part of the world … both in animals and plants.
What are the effects of the seasons of the year on plants?
The seasons of the year will be more or less remarkable and intense depending on how close or far we are from the equator.. And even in the same region, there may be countries where there is one that is lengthened or shortened more than in others. So that you understand this, I will give you a simple example: both Sweden and Spain fall within what we call the temperate region of the planet, but in Sweden the winters are colder than in Spain, with a minimum temperature that can be -52,6 , 1966th (registered in XNUMX, in Vuoggatjålme).
With regard to the Spanish winter, the minimum recorded was -30ºC, at the Calamocha aerodrome (Teruel) in December 1963; although the normal thing is that it does not fall below -18ºC on average (taking into account all the provinces).
Sure, with those temperatures so low, plants must have some defense system. And they have it: some have chosen to drop all their foliage as soon as it begins to cool, others instead produce their own antifreeze, which forms a waterproof layer that keeps them isolated from the snow (here! you have more information about it).
So how do the seasons affect plants?
Spring is the season of flowers. The days are getting longer, the land is warming little by little, and the rains tend to be frequent in some areas. Although it can freeze, plants come out of their slumber, and they do it in a big way: resuming their growth with the production of leaves, flowers… And of course continuing with root development.
What tasks to do this season?
Now it is an excellent time to sow and plantas well as to prune those branches that are dry, diseased or weak. Use appropriate tools, and previously disinfected to prevent infections.
If you have any plants that need a pot change, feel free to transplant them early / mid-season so they can continue to grow.
Summer is the season in which the highest temperatures are recorded in the area, not in vain, it is when the sun’s rays reach us more directly. As a result, the moisture in the soil is lost faster, which forces you to water more often.
During this time there will be plants that will barely grow, but others will continue to do so. The fruit trees that have begun to produce fruit will be those that will spend a good part of their energy in making those fruits come to fruition.
What to do in this season?
As a gardener or plant keeper, it’s time to water frequently. Likewise, it is a good idea to protect the soil with some type of mulch (shavings, pine bark, decorative gravel, …) so that it stays wet for longer, and fertilize.
Types of soil fertilizer
Another important task to do is to take preventive anti-pest measures. It does not hurt to do some treatment, as I say preventive, once every 15 days or so with diatomaceous earth for example to keep insects away from your crops.
Fall is the season when deciduous trees begin to lose their leaves. The temperatures begin to be lower and lower, and the hours of light are less and less. Now It is when there are many plants that have finished maturing their fruits, and therefore slow down their growth rate.
As the risk of being attacked by insects that can become pests is still high, especially the closer to the equator we are, so you have to be a little aware in case you need to treat the plants.
What to do in this season?
During these months it’s time to space out the risksbecause the earth is staying humid every time by more time. It is also time to plant trees and other deciduous plants, as long as there is no frost for the next three months.
Likewise, it is necessary to protect the most delicate plants in greenhouses or inside the home.
Winter is the season when landscapes and gardens are dressed in white in many parts of the world. Deciduous temperate trees no longer have leaves, but … there is still life: inside the trunks and branches, the basic functions to keep the plants alive are still being carried out, albeit at a very slow rate. The days are much shorter, and the intensity of the sun’s rays is weaker; As a result, insects that are dangerous to crops are no longer a serious problem.
It does not hurt to inspect the plants from time to time, but in principle the tasks to be carried out are very few.
What to do in this season?
If it has not already been done, cold-sensitive plants must be protected in greenhouses or inside homes so that they do not have a bad time. Do not pay or prune. Irrigation must be lowSince the Sun is not very hot and growth has practically been suspended until the arrival of spring.
We hope it has been useful to you .