One of the most cultivated ornamental plants in the world and for centuries are the roses. These shrubs bloom for months, producing flowers that are often large and beautifully colored, such as red, yellow, or white. Also, although there are many varieties that have no aroma, there are others that do.
Origin and characteristics of roses
The plants known as roses or rose bushes are a series of bushes, usually thorny, of the genus Rosa. There are an estimated 100 species, which grow in Asia, North America, Europe and Northwest Africa, but most are found on the Asian continent. From these varieties, more than 30 thousand cultivars have been created, and new ones emerge every year.
They are characterized by being shrubs or climbers that can grow between 10 centimeters and 20 meters in height. depending on the species or cultivar. The stems are semi-woody, and are protected by thick sharp thorns. From these sprout leaves composed of 5 to 9 leaflets or pinnae, with a serrated margin and green, deciduous or perennial.
The flowers are of good size, measuring between 2 and 10 centimeters in diameter. Its petals can be of very varied colors: red, white, yellow, pink, or even bicolor (red with white spots, for example). The fruit is known as rose hip, which is composed of many small fruits, and is red when ripe.
Types of rose bushes
Roses have been cultivated for so long that it was necessary to classify them in some way to be able to know all the varieties that exist. Thus, these plants are classified according to whether they are pure species or hybrids created by humans, and according to their age:
Wild rose bushes
Wild rose bushes are those that grow naturally. They tend to produce smaller flowers than cultivars, and they also tend to have many more spines to ward off predators. Some examples are:
La pink banksiae It is a shrub that can be used as a climbing or hanging climber, since it has very long stems which measure up to 6 meters. It is native to China, and it is very interesting since Although its flowers, which can be white or yellow, measure only about 2,5 centimeters in diameter at most, they are very numerous. In addition, it has almost no thorns and remains evergreen.
La Rosa canina It is a deciduous shrub with thorns that grows in Europe, Northwest Africa and West Asia. It measures 2 meters high, and has flowers 4 to 6 centimeters in diameter, white or light pink. It is a plant with curved and reddish spines that sprout along the stem, and that produces ovoid fruits that are also deep red in color.
La Gallica rose It is a thorny deciduous shrub known as rosebush of Castile or rosebush of France. It grows in Europe and Western Asia, and is a plant that reaches 2 meters in height. Its leaves are bluish-green, and produces aromatic flowers of about 3-4 centimeters in diameter pink.
Old rose bushes
The old rose bushes are those that already existed before the first Tea Hybrid appeared, in 1867. They are generally natural hybrids, that is, they arose without human intervention in nature, such as:
With the name of tea rose we refer to a series of roses originating from the crossing of Giant rose x Rosa chinensis. They are shrubs or climbers that produce aromatic flowers during the summer and into the fall. These can be white, pink, lilac, or yellow.
pink x dawn
Known as white rose, it is a hybrid native to Europe. It is a thorny and deciduous shrub that reaches 2 meters in height. Its flowers are white and measure between 6 and 8 centimeters in diameter. These sprout in early summer.
pink x damascene
It is known as damask rose or rose of Castile, and is native to a series of crosses of species native to the Middle East. It grows as a deciduous shrub up to 2 meters high, which is protected with thorns. The flowers are pink or reddish, and are about 8 centimeters in diameter.
Modern rose bushes
These hybrid roses come from crosses among others such as Rosa x odorata, Gallica rose or Rosa x damascena. They are shrubs with a relatively small size, as they do not exceed 2 meters in height. Depending on the cultivar they can be climbers. Their flowers are of very diverse colors, and they often produce them for most of the year.
They are hybrids that come from the cross between Rosa chinensis y Multiflora rose. They are bushes of approximately 1 meter or meter and a half in height, which produce flowers up to 10 centimeters in diameter, of colors like yellow, red or pale pink, and scented.
La Polyantha rose is originally from the cross between Rosa chinensis y Multiflora rose. They are thorny shrubs that bloom during the spring and into the fall, which is why they are highly appreciated despite the fact that their flowers are not the largest. These are 2,5 centimeters in diameter, and can be pink, white, or red.
They are rose bushes that are popular for a reason. For example:
David Austin Roses
David Charles Hensaw Austin was a writer and botanist who loved roses. In fact, he dedicated a good part of his life to creating new cultivars that had the elegance and perfume of old rose bushes, but also the ability to bloom for much of the year. A) Yes, obtained more than 190 cultivars, among which are the pink-flowered ‘Constance Spry’, or the orange-flowered ‘Charles Austin’.
They are cultivars that are characterized by having hanging branches or stems. They are often grafted onto others for higher quality flowering or better disease resistance. As an example we highlight ‘Les Quatre Saisons’, a variety of pink flowers which measure about 3-4 centimeters, which sprout from mid-spring to late summer.
Caring for the rose bush in a pot and in the garden
Roses have to be outdoors. It is important that they are placed outside because inside the house they could not grow well as a result of the lack of light.
Whether they are going to be in the ground or in a pot, they need to have enough room to grow. Its roots are not invasive, so we will not have to worry about this.
How many hours of sunshine does a rose bush need?
So that the rose can bloom it is necessary that you give it a minimum of 4 hours of direct sun every day. Anyway, there are some exceptions, like the pitiminí rosebush that it can be in semi-shade without being directly exposed to the sun at any time.
Soil or substrate
- the garden: roses grow in nutrient-rich soils. In addition, these do not have to flood easily.
- Flower pot: if they are to be kept in a pot, a universal growing medium can be used.
They can’t stand drought. For this reason we will water an average of 3 times a week in summer, and 1-2 times a week throughout the spring, autumn and winter. We will use rainwater if possible, or one that is low in lime.
Likewise, you should avoid getting your flowers wet when we water, since otherwise they would dry out before their time.
To get everything that has to grow to grow and can produce many flowers, it is advisable to fertilize the rose bushes throughout the vegetative season, that is, from spring to autumn.
For this purpose we will use fertilizers such as worm humus, or guano (for sale here!). Other very good ones are chicken manure (as long as it is dry), or compost.
- Formation pruning: consists of removing dead and diseased branches, as well as suckers (they are branches that sprout from below the stem, which tend to be somewhat thinner than the others and with slightly smaller leaves). Also, the stems have to be trimmed a bit to control the growth of the plant.
- Flower pruning: Withered flowers have to be cut, for example with scissors. But beware, you not only have to remove the flower, but also several centimeters of the stem. If this stem is about 20 centimeters long, it will be removed about 5 centimeters; but if it is only 10 centimeters, less than half will be removed.
How to make rose bushes bloom
- Red spider: it is a red mite that we will find on the underside of the leaves. They weaken the plant, so it is important that it is treated with diatomaceous earth or acaricides as soon as they are detected.
- Mealybugs: the attack of cottony mealybug. This is found in both the leaves and the stems, and sucks the sap of the plant. It is removed with diatomaceous earth (for sale here!), pyrethrins or potassium soap.
- Rosebush false caterpillar: they are larvae of the wasp arge rosae. They have a white body with black spots, a black head and a yellow back. They devour the leaves, so it is necessary to treat the rose bushes with neem oil (for sale here!) or diatomaceous earth.
- Aphids: are aphids green or brown that feed on the sap of flower buds and leaves. In severe cases, the bold fungus appears, which covers the foliage with a kind of black powder. They are removed with diatomaceous earth or pyrethrins.
Rose bush diseases
Rose bushes can have various diseases throughout their life:
- Black spot: they are blackish spots with a more or less rounded shape produced by fungi of the species Marssonina rosae. They appear mainly on the lower leaves. It is treated with fungicides that contain copper.
- Mildew: it is a fungal disease transmitted by the fungus Peronospora sparsa. It causes spots of a color ranging from purple to white to appear on the leaves, buds and also on the flowers. Over time the affected parts blacken and fall off. It is fought with fungicides that contain copper or sulfur (for sale here!).
- Powdery mildew: The powdery mildew is a fungal disease transmitted by Sphaerotheca pannosa. The affected rose bushes have leaves covered by grayish-white powder. It is fought with anti-powdery mildew fungicides, such as this.
- Roya: it is a fungal disease that, in the case of rose bushes, is transmitted by fungi of the species Phragmidium mucronatum. It produces yellow-orange bumps on the underside of the leaves. It can be treated with fungicides containing horsetail (for sale here!) or copper.
The rose bushes generally multiplied by cuttings in spring. Taking advantage of the pruning remains, the base of the stems -which are green- can be impregnated with rooting hormones (for sale here!) and plant them in the garden or in a pot with substrate, such as vermiculite or peat. They will root in approximately two weeks.
Pure species can be multiplied by seeds as well. These are sown in winter, in seedbeds with substrate such as mulch, and are kept watered, in semi-shade. Throughout the spring they will begin to germinate.
The roses they are plants that like a temperate climate, with mild summers and cold winters. The vast majority of cultivars that are marketed resist frosts of up to -18ºC without problem, so that they can be kept outside throughout the year without problems in much of Spain; and in the event that you live in a colder area, with an anti-frost fabric you will keep them protected.
What did you think of the roses? You have someone?