We live in a fascinating world, full of animal and, above all, plant life. Plants have been on Earth for many millions of years, to be more or less exact, it is estimated that they began their evolution about 1.6 billion years ago. Since then, and as the Earth was having its current configuration, they have been developing to be able to adapt to the various conditions that were presented to them .
Thus, each of the parts of the plants has been perfected more and more. But what are these parts? What function do they have?
Plants, unlike animals, once the seed germinates in one place, it will stay there for its entire life. Despite this, they do something that none of us can do: transform the sun’s energy into food. In doing so, they absorb carbon dioxide (CO2) and release oxygen (O2) in a process called photosynthesis. That is why the first part we are going to see is the root.
- 1 Roots
- 2 Stem
- 3 Sheets
- 4 flower
- 5 fruit
- 6 Seed
The roots fix the plants to the ground, but, in reality, they have other functions besides this. In the earth there are various nutrients and minerals that, when it rains, are dissolved. The roots absorb them through the absorbent hairs so that the aerial part, that is, the stem and the leaves, can stay healthy and grow.
Several parts are distinguished:
- Neck : is the part that joins the stem with the root.
- Suberified or branching zone: it is the zone that is between the neck and the piliferous zone. This is where the secondary roots come from.
- Piliferous zone or absorbent hairs : it is the zone that is between the suberified zone and the growth zone. It is covered with hairs that absorb water and minerals dissolved in it.
- Zone of growth or cell division : it is the zone located between the piliferous zone and the cap. This is where root growth arises from.
- Cap : it is a cap that protects the tip of the root when it is introduced into the interior of the earth.
The stem is a very important part for plants . Its interior is full of life. The water with its minerals, known as raw sap, travels from the roots to the leaves through really fine tubes called woody vessels. When it reaches the leaves, it mixes with the carbon dioxide that the leaves have taken in from the air and turns into processed sap , which is the plant’s food.
The elaborated sap travels from the leaves to the roots, thus ensuring that all parts can feed.
Three main parts are distinguished:
- Neck : is the union of the root with the stem.
- Node : leaves and branches emerge from them.
- Buds : give rise to the branches.
Leaves are the food factory of plants . Thanks to them, they can breathe, absorbing oxygen and expelling carbon dioxide; carry out the photosynthesis that we have already mentioned, and they can also transpire, which consists of expelling excess water through the stomata.
There are many shapes and sizes, they can even change color throughout the year. In turn, they can be perennial , that is, they fall as new ones appear every few months or every X years, or expired , which are those that fall in a certain season of the year (summer or winter).
Several parts are distinguished:
- Limbo : it is the more or less flat part. It has two faces: the upper one is the beam and the reverse is the underside.
- Petiole : it is the filament that joins the leaf to the stem or to the branch.
- Sheath : it is the widening of the petiole or limb that surrounds the stem.
Flowers are incredible structures. Thanks to them, plants can multiply year after year, thus perpetuating the species. They are made up of different parts:
- Floral peduncle : joins the flower with the stem.
- Floral envelope : it is a set of small leaves that protect the reproductive organs. It is made up:
- Calyx: It is made up of little green daughters called sepals that are on the outside of the flower.
- Corolla: it is the flower itself. It is made up of small leaves that can be of different colors that have the function of attracting pollinators.
- Reproductive organs :
- Stamens: they are small rods that are in the center of the flower and that store the pollen. It is the male organ of the flower.
- Filament: it is a very thin stem that supports the anther, which is a kind of bag where the pollen is found.
- Pistils: they are formed by the ovary, which is where the ovules are found; the style, which is a kind of small tube that joins the ovary with the stigma, and the stigma. It is the female organ of the flower.
The fruit is the fertilized ovary . Inside is one or more seeds. It can complete its development in a few weeks or sometimes in two years, like pines . It can be meaty or dry.
The seed is essential for plants since with them they can perpetuate their genes . There are many types: winged, smaller than the head of a pin, the size of a tennis ball… In order to germinate, it is important that the conditions are suitable for each species. Thus, if, for example, it comes from a habitat where winter is very cold, in order for them to sprout it will be necessary for temperatures to be low.
Did you know the parts of plants and their function?