The cayenne pepper is a chili pepper plant from South America which will grow to heights anywhere from two to four feet tall. Immature pepper pods are green, but they gradually integrate spice levels as they ripen, finally turning red when the peppers are ready for harvesting. Cayenne pepper pods also sometimes grow in yellow or orange shades, and cayennes usually grow to be around four to 6 inches long.
The ground cayenne pepper powder is infamous as a standby within the rack or on grocery shelves, so it’s going to surprise some gardeners to find out that cayenne pepper is additionally available in its fresh form all year round. Cayenne has many health benefits and has been utilized in both medicinal and culinary capacities for thousands of years and remains useful to both fields to the present day.
Though it’s most generally referred to as and most ordinarily called the cayenne pepper, it’s also sometimes mentioned as Guinea spice, cow-horn peppers, aleva or bird peppers, and is usually called red pepper once it’s dried. Cayenne, alongside many other spices, was delivered to Europe following the invention of the new world. Named after the french Guiana city of Cayenne, the Cayenne pepper may be a member of the nightshade family.
Right around the middle of the Scoville chart at up to 50,000 Scoville heat units, the cayenne pepper is nowhere near the most well-liked pepper on the list, but it still packs a punch. The pepper is said to the milder bell pepper, and therefore the ever-popular jalapeno (the latter is simply slightly less powerful than cayenne).
Cayenne is rich in vitamins, minerals, nutrients, and antioxidants. Each serving of cayenne gives your body a healthy dose of vitamin A, also as smaller amounts of the following: vitamin E, vitamin C, vitamin B6, Potassium, Manganese, and vitamin K. Medicinally, cayenne is most generally wont to treat digestive issues, but it’s also helpful treating a good range of other ailments, including stomach ulcers, acid indigestion, blood clots, a heart condition, and cancer.
TYPES OF CAYENNE PEPPERS
There are many various sorts of cayenne pepper for gardeners to settle on from. Here are a couple of of our favorites:
Red Cayenne (Standard)
Produces four to 6-inch pods that mature from green to red.
Cayenne Long Slim
This variety produces long slender peppers that mature to a red tint in about 68 days. This variety is especially high in vitamins C and A.
Great variety to grow for pickling. 4 inch green to red pods. immune to root-knot nematode.
This Italian native is additionally referred to as whipping tail. The long, slender pepper pods can grow from eight to 10 inches long and sharpen to a taper at the ends. Very spicy with a definite cayenne flavor.
Long Thick Red
This cultivar produces six-inch-long fiery red peppers that are perfect for drying.
This variety produces long snake-like curled pods that mature from green to red.
This variety is long, fat, yellow and smooth in appearance and is one among the warmer sorts of cayenne pepper.
Ring of fireside
As its name suggests, the ring of fireside cayenne is super hot. The plants are rather short but produce tons of fruit. Ring of fireside is smaller and smoother than the quality cayenne pepper.
GROWING CONDITIONS FOR CAYENNE PEPPERS
The most important growing condition for cayenne peppers may be a significant amount of warmth. they’re native to tropical and subtropical climates, so it’s no wonder that they require an extended season and much of full sunlight exposure.
Overly dry or overly moist soil will cause the leaves to yellow and therefore the fruit production to slow. lookout to water regularly but don’t overwater. Sufficient drainage is paramount when it involves cayenne pepper plants.
HOW TO PLANT CAYENNE PEPPERS
In temperate climates, the cayenne pepper plant is typically grown as an annual. In these areas, you’ll get to start seeds indoors and supply a temperature that’s above 60 F, preferably right around 70 degrees. Use a light-weight soil medium and a pleasant sunny location. Allow 16-20 days for seeds to sprout. Once they sprout, plant seedlings into flats two to 3 inches apart and gradually harden them off to the outside. For best results, transplant your cayenne pepper plants six to eight weeks after the seeds are sown and in any case danger of frost has passed. Prepare your transplant’s final homes by amending the soil with organic materials and fertilizer but avoid a high nitrogen feed, confirm the ultimate locations have ample sun exposure.
If you reside in a neighborhood that benefits from an extended season and much of sunlight, sow seeds directly into the bottom 10-14 days before the last frost date. When transplanting or sowing directly, plant your pepper plants 18-24 inches apart in rows.
CARE OF CAYENNE PEPPERS
Once the soil has warmed to 75 F or higher, it’s going to be an honest idea to feature a layer of organic mulch to the topsoil. Doing this may help fight against invasive weeds and help the soil retain moisture without becoming soggy. you’ll plan to overwinter cayenne pepper plants outdoors if you reside in a neighborhood with mild winter weather, but care should be taken to guard the plants against frosts. Moving the plants indoors during especially cold winters is required and wintering your peppers indoors is suggested in most climates.
Prune your pepper plant to encourage more compact growth and fruit production. Peppers should be able to harvest in 70-80 days.
HARVESTING & STORING CAYENNE PEPPERS
Most sorts of cayenne pepper start out green and mature to a red (most common), yellow, orange, brown, or white color. once they are able to pick, most pods should be around four to 6 inches long and comparatively easy to tug off the stem. Though it only seems right and natural to select a pepper by hand, employing a sharp pair of garden shears to snip the plant causes much less damage and leaves the plant able to sprout new growth and produce more fruit within the place of the harvest you reaped.
Unfortunately, the time period of your cayenne peppers is limited. a method to elongate that time period is drying. the foremost efficient method is to use a food dehydrator to dry out your peppers. If you don’t own one among those, pop the peppers within the oven on a cooking utensil and put the oven on rock bottom setting and dry them out for 2 to 3 hours. Turn the peppers within the oven frequently to form sure they’re drying out evenly.
If you’ve got no oven and a touch more patience, just placing the peppers on a sunny window ledge and turning them often will eventually do the trick. Once your peppers are dry and funky, place them in an airtight container and store to feature to future recipes.
SAVING CAYENNE PEPPER SEEDS
To collect cayenne pepper seeds for future planting, simply cut the pepper in half, remove the seeds, and place them on a towel for twenty-four hours. This process will dry out the seeds in order that they won’t mildew. Once dried, place the seeds into a bag and label them for future use.
PESTS AND DISEASES
Leaf blight and fruit rot are often treated with fungicides. mildew and plant disease can occur if there’s a drainage problem. Aphids, mites, slugs, snails, pepper maggots, thrips, whiteflies, and root-knot nematodes are all common issues with cayenne pepper. Crop rotation, hosing down your plants to knock off small pests, hand-picking snails and slugs, removing diseased or damaged leaves or stems are all-natural ways to fight garden pests without using chemicals. Treating your pepper plants with organic insecticide spray within the spring when new growth begins can go an extended way towards avoiding most garden pests.