The tree pruning It consists of eliminating a part of the tree, bush or plant so that it can help the organism to find the meaning and direction that is most useful for the human being and healthy for the plant. It can be said that it is a set of operations that are carried out on the plant to shape it. There are numerous types of pruning and times of the year in which they are carried out, depending on what is intended to be achieved and the species we are treating.
In this article we are going to tell you everything you need to know about tree pruning, when it is done and what materials are needed to carry it out.
We have mentioned that tree pruning is nothing more than a set of operations that we are carrying out on the plant both on the skeleton and on the crown in order to modify and control the size or limit the growth of the plant. It also serves to form irregular the amount of flowers and fruits that are generated. The main objective is to optimize the harvests to get better benefits from the crops. With pruning you can improve not only the quantity, but the quality of the fruits irregular the fruiting process every year in the species that we are cultivating.
Tools to use
As is to be expected, in all the cases in which we are going to prune trees, we need tools that should allow us to make clean cuts without tearing the branch. For this, we need the tools to be completely sharp and after use, they must be cleaned, disinfected and lubricated so that they have a better conservation and give better results. Disinfection of tools after use is of vital importance to avoid the transmission of diseases between plants. Even if you have your tools active, it is important to clean them with ethyl alcohol or 50% bleach water.
When is tree pruning done
Many people do not know when tree pruning is done. This question cannot be answered as such, since there are different types of pruning depending on the objective that is sought and the tree that we are pruning. Two main types of pruning can be distinguished based on the time for which it is carried out:
- Winter pruning: It is the one that is carried out when the last leaves fall until the end of winter, when the buds are still at rest.
- Pruning in green: It is made from the fruit tree with leaves and has different varieties depending on the objective that is pursued. There are two different times to carry it out: the first is the late spring pruning that is done only to eliminate unwanted growths that usually compete with the development of the fruit. Thanks to this pruning, we develop a better environment so that the tree can develop the fruits with better quality. The other variety is the autumn pruning: it is carried out after the harvest in order to increase the amount of light distribution inside the tree. Thanks to the increased light, a better quality of the fruitful buds can be achieved for the following season. The main objective is to improve the quantity and quality of the fruits for the next fruiting.
The case in which we carry out pruning of fruit trees, all of them must have as main objective to favor the production of fruit. In this case, it is not as strict as in the case of an extensively produced fruit tree, but there are some basic issues that must be addressed to improve development:
- Pruning should mainly favor the entrance of light and air in the part of the glass. This means that only the branches that serve as guides and that are necessary to maintain the structure are left.
- Fruit plants must get a balance between the floral part and the vegetative part thanks to pruning.
- In all pruning old branches and suckers must be removed. These are usually long branches that have little woody texture and few buds that grow vertically. Normally the bud usually grows next to a cut or on the sides of thick branches.
- The ultimate goal of fruit tree pruning it must be getting a good pick of fruit. To do this, you can cut thick branches that have risen or bend the branches that are more flexible to slow the circulation of the sap and generate more flower buds.
Types of tree pruning
Let’s see what are the types of tree pruning and its main function:
- Formation pruning: It is a method carried out in seedlings to guide their development. It is done in the first four years after sowing. In this stage, the formation of plant structures is prioritized and the main branches that will form the final structure are selected.
- Fruiting pruning: The objective is to improve the development of flower buds and maintain a balance between fruit and leaf production. Pome fruit trees and stone fruit trees have different characteristics. This pruning begins when the plant enters the production stage.
- Rejuvenation pruning: It is done with already formed trees, eliminating suckers, broken, old or diseased branches. It can be made at the end of the harvest and used to remove old fruit branches and provide opportunities for new fruit branches. Here you can also trim the branches to limit the height of the canopy and guide the spread of the branches.
When pruning a branch, it is necessary to cut approximately one centimeter from the bud, with an inclination that can protect it from falling water and earth. In the event that the branches to be pruned are thicker, the cuts must be made in such a way as to facilitate the wound healing well. It is recommended not to leave any stumps even if the cut starts at the fork. Pruning should start with a cut up to almost half the diameter and more or less on the lower side about 20 cm from the trunk where the branch originates. Further up, about 10 cm outwards and from above another cut is made that allows the branch to be separated. This branch will break under its own weight without shedding bark. Finally, a cut removes the remaining stump.
I hope that with this information you can learn more about tree pruning.