The pineapple, that delicious fruit that is normally eaten during the summer and autumn, springs from the wonderful pineapple plant , which is scientifically known as “ Ananas comosus ”.
This plant consists of a terrestrial bromeliad native to South America, which forms a rosette of lanceolate and leathery leaves , which are approximately 1m long. Its flowers, of a beautiful color between pink and reddish, turn out to be a true wonder, since they are grouped in spike-shaped inflorescences, which remain open for a month in order to be pollinated.
After being pollinated, the fruit begins to ripen into a berry, which when fully grown reaches between 7-10cm in width and about 30cm in length. Inside the fruit is the pulp, which is yellow in color, has a sweet and slightly acidic flavor and has a quite pleasant aroma.
- 1 Characteristics of the Pineapple Plant
- 2 Pineapple Plant Care
- 3 For this reason and when having a pineapple plant, it is necessary to follow the following care:
- 3.1 Your location
- 3.2 Soil
- 3.3 Subscription
- 3.4 Irrigation
- 3.5 Time to plant and/or transplant
- 3.6 Plantation framework
- 3.7 Harvest
- 3.8 Rusticity
- 4 Pineapple plant pests and diseases include:
- 4.1 Mites, scales and nematodes
- 4.2 Beetles and mealybugs
- 4.3 Bud decomposition
- 4.4 Tamale leaf
- 4.5 Fusarium
Characteristics of the Pineapple Plant
The pineapple is a plant of tropical origin , from South America, which apart from being small, is perennial, herbaceous and perennial, in addition to having a base formed through the compact association of several leaves that create a rosette .
This plant has two types of roots, the first are the adventitious roots , which are short and very superficial, since most of them grow at the base of the stem about 15cm from the ground; the second, are the main roots and they are a little longer, reaching depths of approximately 60cm and even more.
In addition, the pineapple plant has a short , fleshy stem, in which the nutrients produced by the leaves are stored.
This plant has leaves that reach between 50-150cm in length, which are resistant, lanceolate, fibrous, have a sword shape, are enveloping and are arranged in a spiral around the stem , in addition, they have finely serrated edges which depending on the variety, they may or may not have spines.
The color of its leaves may be either light or dark grayish green, however, there are some varieties that have colored leaves , which have a mixture of violet, red, silver and/or yellow. Likewise, the face as well as the back of the leaves are lined with a fine layer of silver fluff that does not allow sunlight to pass through and they also have a thick cuticle that prevents them from losing moisture.
As time passes, its short floral stem lengthens and widens and around it sprouts a large number of small, violaceous flowers and all of them contain an individual bract that can be green, red or yellow in whose cavities new ones sprout. flowers.
The stem of the pineapple plant continues to grow and develops a circle of rigid and short leaves on top of the floral set and all the flowers of this are hermaphrodites, so they turn out to be self-fertile and although the time of flowering is uncertain , they are used commercially. plant hormones with the purpose of promoting not only flowering, but also the sprouting of its fruits.
Pineapple Plant Care
Taking care of the pineapple plant is not usually an easy job, since being a tropical plant, it is convenient that its growth takes place in a place with a warm climate and where there are no frosts, since otherwise, it may suffer Significant damage in winter.
For this reason and when having a pineapple plant, it is necessary to follow the following care:
The pineapple plant must be outdoors, specifically in a semi-shaded place.
The soil must have optimal drainage , in addition to having a low pH (4.5-5.5).
In the course of spring and summer, it is necessary to fertilize the soil where the plant is every 15 days using fertilizers that have a high content of potassium and nitrogen.
It should be watered whenever the soil is dry , which is usually about every 2-3 days during the summer and about every 5-6 days during the rest of the year.
Time to plant and/or transplant
The most convenient time to plant or transplant the pineapple plant is usually in spring.
At least 30x60cm.
The harvest of the fruits is done after 15 months of having planted it .
It is a plant that is really sensitive to cold weather , whose ideal minimum temperature is 15ºC, although it is capable of withstanding 5ºC for a short period of time.
Among the pests and diseases of the pineapple plant are:
Mites, scales and nematodes
The pineapple plant mite, also known as “red spider”, usually feeds on the base of the leaves of the fruit of this plant.
It is a very problematic pest in long periods of drought , since they could move to the stems, which would prevent the pineapples from reproducing and although the red spider is not a really important pest, it is very convenient to treat it in time to avoid future problems. Likewise, there are several kinds of nematodes which affect this plant, damaging its roots by causing a knot and its decomposition.
beetles and mealybugs
Sap beetles are likely to become a big problem for pineapple plant owners, as they are often attracted to plants that have a disease known as gummosis, which occurs when an injured plant begins to expel a gummy substance.
For their part, the beetles penetrate the young fruits to lay their eggs there . Likewise, mealybugs feed on the base of the leaves of this plant causing it to wither and in the same way, they can cause the root to rot, which in turn reduces fruit production.
It is a frequent disease, which occurs due to a fungus and occurs during periods of acceleration of growth of these plants.
Normally, the most frequent symptoms are foliage that turns yellowish and in some cases reaches necrosis and then total decomposition. Also, the fruit can suffer from decay and its stem exhibits a halo around the point where the leaves sprout. Apart from this, the root becomes sensitive and falls off when trying to extract the plant.
It is a bacterium, which directly attacks the highest growth peak . It usually occurs during periods of climatic changes where there are high temperatures. It affects both the foliage and the stem, causing a slight discoloration in both, and it is also possible that the fruits accumulate ammonia inside their pulp.
It is a worldwide spread fungus , which arises as a result of high humidity and root problems.