Would you like to have one of these peculiar plants in your home? Ferns are the oldest plants on the planet, more than 400 million years old, and they persist to this day. These plants that coexisted with dinosaurs continue to be an example of overcoming and adapting to the environment , which is why many consider them living fossils. Their striking appearance thanks to the intense coloring and shape of their leaves has made them highly valued plants for creating unique environments, both inside and outside our homes.
For all this, in this article we want to teach you a little more about them and some of the most common types of ferns , as well as other varieties, so that you have a wide range of possibilities when choosing the one that best suits your needs. your house or garden. In addition, we include scientific names of ferns in the list so that you learn more about the basic terms of botany. Finally, at the end of this article we offer you a series of tips for caring for ferns and some useful information about their reproduction.
Asplenium nidus or bird’s nest
It is commonly known as a bird’s nest or asplenium fern and is native to Australia. The Asplenium nidus is very easy to recognize by its long, bright green leaves that also have a very visible midrib for its dark brown color. It can measure up to 2 m in height and is capable of withstanding temperatures of up to -2 ºC.
Athyrium filix-femina or female fern
The most characteristic feature of the Athyrium filix-femina fern are its reddish-brown stems and bright green curly leaves. It is also known as a female fern and was used by some societies as a claim to attract rain.
Blechnum gibbum or parrot yerba
The Blechnum gibbum , also known as yerba de papagayo is a native New Caledonia tree fern that, like the asplenium, manages to reach 2 m in height. However, it is very sensitive to cold, which is why it is one of the types of indoor ferns most used for decorating our homes. It also has long leaves of up to 50 cm.
Cythea or tree fern
The Cyathea are typical ferns of the tropical rainforests and temperate forests and are also called tree ferns . These can reach a maximum height of 6 m and it is one of the best known large leaf ferns. These can measure up to 1m in length and, on the other hand, their trunk is quite delegated. It can withstand temperatures above 30 ºC.
Cyrtomium falcatum or falcata fern
The Cyrtomium falcatum , also commonly known as falcata fern , is a type of fern whose main characteristic is its thick texture and low height, not exceeding one meter in height. Its ornamental value lies in its foliage and its tolerance to the sun, so we can use it without problems as an outdoor plant.
Dicksonia antarctica or dicksonia
The Dicksonia antarctica or dicksonia fern is one of the types of tree ferns native to Australia that reaches up to 15 m in height and is highly valued as one of the types of outdoor ferns , thanks to the light green color of its leaves and its leafy appearance. that give it great ornamental value.
Dryopteris wallichiana or goat’s head
This bush-type fern native to Mexico reaches 1.5 m in height. A the Dryopteris wallichiana or goat ‘s head is recognized by its leaves a pale green and tri-pinnate well as their stems dark brown.
The Nephrolepis exaltata is the common or domestic fern , which is also called sword fern or curly fern , and it is one that we are able to identify without problems and that is capable of adapting to most tropical areas. The most characteristic of its aspects are its long and curly leaves of almost one meter in length and its leafy appearance. It is another of the most used types of indoor ferns .
Selaginella willdenowii or blue fern
The Selaginella willdenowii is a fern native to Asia and is one of the most valued by those looking to have an exotic touch in their garden. Perfect for outdoors, the also known as blue fern , has a branched trunk that can reach up to 8 meters in height.
Osmundastrum cinnamomeum or cinnamon fern
It is another of the fern varieties that tolerates direct sun exposure well, but only if it is near a wet or humid area. The Osmundastrum cinnamomeum , popularly known as fern cinnamon , is native to North America and stands out because its green leaves sometimes become greyish and its central part, reminiscent of cinnamon sticks, hence its name.
How to care for ferns
The tracheophyta fern , which is nothing more than the scientific name given to these plants, needs certain factors to ensure its development. These are the main care of ferns :
- In general, ferns should not be left without light, although it is not good that they receive it directly, except in particular cases.
- They need constant watering and must be in a pot that has holes to facilitate drainage.
- During hot months, such as spring and summer, lightly fertilizing may do well.
- Also to promote its growth we recommend that you remove the leaves in poor condition.
Ferns can reproduce in three ways: by spores , by separating stolons and cultivating them in vitro. Obviously, the first two are the most used because they are much simpler than the last.
If you choose to reproduce a fern by spores, you will have to wait until they are mature. You will know this when they take a dark coloration. After this, you can place them in a soil with pH6 and with humidity that is around 80%. To reproduce a fern by stolons , you just have to carefully remove them and plant them in a land that has the same specifications as for reproduction by spores.