Would you like to know what types of fruit plants there are? If you are one of those who wants to allocate your land, patio or terrace for the cultivation of species that can be consumed, you must take into account something that you will probably love: there are a wide variety of plants that will be useful to you. But yes: it is necessary to know them a little, otherwise you would end up spending money in vain.
For example, you have to inform yourself about its light needs and its rusticity, since a, let’s say, mango will not grow as well in an area where the climate is tropical and humid than in another where frosts are registered. Therefore, below we show you a selection of fruit plantssuitable for growing in temperate and subtropical climates (that is, areas where the minimum temperature drops below 0 degrees).
All trees bear fruit, but not all are fit for human consumption. Also, there are some that are deciduous and others are evergreen. Not sure which one to choose? Do not worry.
To make it easier for you, we will tell you a few examples of each type:
El almond, whose scientific name is Almondis a deciduous tree native to Asia, but it has been in the Mediterranean region for about 2000 years (according to Wikipedia), which was when the Phoenicians introduced it. Reaches a height of 3 to 5 metersand it is one of the fruit trees that needs the least cold hours (between 200 and 500).
He wants sun. It is a plant that has to be cultivated in clay or neutral soils so that it can grow. Likewise, it is convenient to water it from time to time, since although it resists drought somewhat, it develops much better if it receives water regularly, especially in summer. For the rest, it resists up to -7ºC, although the spring frosts harm it.
The apricot or apricot tree, whose scientific name is Prunus armeniacais a deciduous tree native to Armenia. It reaches between 3 and 6 meters in heightand it is somewhat thorny. It produces subglobose or ellipsoidal fruits, with velvety yellowish or orange skin.
Requires fertile, well-drained soils, as well as sunny exposure. As for the risks, they must be moderate. For good fruit production, it is also necessary that the climate be temperate, with frosts down to -12ºC.
El manzano, whose scientific name is Malus domesticais a deciduous tree native to China. It can reach a height of 12 metersbut in cultivation it is rare that it is allowed to exceed 3 meters. Unlike other Malus, it has no spines. Its fruit is a globose pommel with thin skin, green, yellow, or reddish depending on the variety.
It must be planted in a sunny area, and watered in a way that prevents the soil from drying outas I would not resist it. It can grow in clay soils, as long as they do not puddle (or, if they do, absorb water at a good rate). It resists frosts down to -12ºC.
The orange tree, whose scientific name is Citrusis a tree native to China and Indochina that reaches a height of up to 10 meters. Its leaves are large, green, and it produces white flowers that give off a delicious aroma. The fruit is a hesperidium, rounded, with an orange peel and a pulp divided into numerous segments.
It can be grown in hot climates, in full sun and on sandy or sandy loam soilswhose pH is between 6 and 7. It tolerates limestone, but in these it will be necessary to apply iron chelate from time to time, or fertilize it with a specific fertilizer for acidic plants. It resists weak frosts, down to -5ºC, but it is preferable that it does not drop below -2ºC.
El medlar, whose scientific name is Eriobotrya japonicaIt is a fruit native to China that reaches a height of 10 meters. It should be noted the beauty of its leaves, which are large up to 30 centimeters, dark green on the upper side, and with dense pubescence on the underside. The fruits are pyriform, ellipsoid or subglobose pommel, yellow to orange when ripe.
It is not demanding. It tolerates a large amount of land and climates, being able to live both in the subtropics and in the temperate-warm ones. All you need is regular sun and water. It resists up to -7ºC, but you must bear in mind that in order to bear fruit it is necessary that the average temperature of the whole year is equal to or greater than 15ºC, which is why it is considered a coastal fruit tree.
The olive tree, whose scientific name is European oilsis an evergreen tree native to the Mediterranean region, which grows up to 15 meters high. Its crown is wide, and its trunk is thick, and as it does not have thorns, it is used both to beautify the garden and for its fruits. These are olives, that is, succulent drupes of green or blackish color depending on the variety.
Grows in soils that have good drainage, in full sun. It resists drought very well (from experience I can tell you that it lives well with 350mm of annual rainfall, if it is planted in soil). It does not need to spend hours of cold to bear fruit, although it is important that the frosts are weak, down to -10ºC.
Fruit shrubs and vines
We rarely think about these plants, but the truth is that they can give us a lot of play. For example, to delimit paths, or to grow them in pots, they are very interesting:
El blueberry, whose scientific name is Vaccinium corymbosumis an evergreen shrub native to the United States. It has a rounded bearing, and reaches a maximum height of 2 meters. It produces small, rounded fruits, bluish in color when ripe.
It is a shrub sensitive to the wind, which lives in slightly acidic soils with a pH between 4 and 5. On the other hand, it resists up to -15ºC.
The blackthorn, whose scientific name is prunus spinosais a deciduous shrub that reaches a height of 4 meters. It has a very branched and tangled bearing, as well as thorny. The fruits are oval drupes of bluish, purplish or blackish color.
Grows in a wide variety of soilsand as it resists up to -15ºC, it is undoubtedly very interesting both for pot and to have in the garden.
El Kiwi, whose scientific name is Delicious actinidiais a deciduous vine native to Asia, specifically China. It can reach 9 meters in height if it has support to climb on. It produces aromatic white flowers and fruits that are oval shaped berries. The skin of these is very fine, brownish green, and the pulp is bright green.
It grows both in the sun and in areas with partial shade. The earth must be deep and rich in organic matter. Resists up to -7ºC.
Other fruit plants
The date palm, whose scientific name is Phoenix dactyliferais a palm native to southwest Asia. It is generally multilayered (that is, it develops several trunks), but it can be monocaule (one trunk). Reaches a height of 30 meterswith a diameter of 20 to 50 centimeters. Its leaves are pinnate and spiny, up to 5 meters long. It produces fruits that are oblong-ovoid orange berries, called dates.
In cultivation it is not demanding, but it must be planted in soils that drain water well, and in full sun. Resists up to -4ºC.
La strawberry, whose scientific name is Fragaria vescais a perennial herb (lives several years) that reaches a height of about 30 centimeters. Its leaves are rosette, composed of three leaflets. The flowers are whitish, and its fruits are polyaquenian, reddish in color when ripe.
It requires being in an area where it is protected from the sunalthough it can bear fruit in semi-shade. The irrigations have to be frequent, since it does not support the drought. Resists up to -8ºC.
There are many types of banana trees, but not all of them produce edible bananas. One of those that do is the hybrid Muse x heavenly. It is a megaforbia (giant herb) that reaches a height of 7 meterswith whole and smooth leaves about 3 meters long by 90 centimeters wide. It produces fruits that are false berries up to 30 centimeters long by up to 5 centimeters in diameter, with a yellow skin and a slightly lighter pulp.
Needs a lot of sun and water, as well as heat. The earth has to drain well, although it tolerates occasional puddles and as long as they do not last more than 48 hours. It is not a plant to grow in cold climates: temperatures below 0 degrees kill both leaves and stem, but the rhizome survives weak frosts down to -2ºC. In Spain it can occur on the Mediterranean coast, where the average annual temperature is 14ºC or more, and where the frosts are very punctual and brief; Furthermore, in many parts of the Canary Islands it is also cultivated.
Do you know other fruit plants?